Effect of Calcium Nitrate
on the freeze-thaw-resistance of concrete

This study investigates the combined use of air entraining agent and calcium nitrate. Both are common admixtures used in cold weather concreting according to ACI 306 (2002). In conclusion the combined use of both admixtures can increase durability and compressive strength of concrete produced for cold environments.


Concrete in cold climates is not only exposed to cold weather while concreting but also to freeze-thaw cycles during its lifetime. Thus not only the concrete production needs to be adjusted to the environmental conditions but also the mixture has to be durable and resist the environmental impacts. Commonly an air entraining agent is used to interrupt the capillary pore system and to provide further space for the freezing water to expand. The downside of this approach is a loss in compressive strength. Within this paper the effect of simultaneous use of air entraining agent and calcium...

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