Sustainability of concrete and reinforced concrete pipes – A comparison of the life cycles of various materials


Pipes for sewer systems consist of various base materials, including vitrified clay, concrete and plastics. This sector is thus also subject to the public debate over global warming with respect to energy consumption and related carbon emissions. Cumulative balances are used to assess the energy consumption and environmental performance of the materials used. These balances consider both the extraction of resources from the earth and the production process itself. Starting from the provision of various sources of energy, this paper identifies and compares the cumulative energy...

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