A defect despite passed freeze-thaw test?

Spalling above intact near-surface aggregate particles?

Depending on the exposure class, commonly applied concrete codes and standards specify the characteristics for raw materials and limit values for the concrete mix, assuming that the concrete will be sufficiently durable if these specifications are adhered to. The relevant standards do not include provisions on the concrete’s appearance or the prevention of isolated imperfections.

Some of the codes and guidelines, such as ZTV-Ing, ZTV-W, ZTV-Beton or the DIN EN 13198 standard governing massive treads or rules for paving flags, require CDF tests to verify the products’ freeze/thaw resistance...

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Issue 2016-02 Transferability of laboratory test results

Determining freeze-thaw resistance of precast products for road pavements under real-life conditions

Since February 2005, the freeze-thaw resistance of concrete pavers had to be determined in the modified slab test in accordance with DIN EN 1338. Some clients favor the CDF method even though there...

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Issue 2013-02 A defect despite passed freeze-thaw test? (Legal evaluation)

Spalling above intact near-surface aggregate particles?

Defects are evaluated in accordance with applicable legislation, rather than on the basis of technical rules and standards. The legal basis is the construction contract that the ordering party/client...

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Issue 2018-02 Freeze-thaw resistance of concrete products

New research findings

The freeze-thaw resistance of concrete paving blocks must be verified by the slab test (DIN EN 1338). Sometimes clients in Germany demand the CDF method (DIN CEN/TS 12390-9). Independent of the test...

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Issue 2017-02 New findings and forecast models

Freeze-thaw attack and damage

The freeze-thaw damage pattern of concrete is primarily linked to the water contained in the pore system, which is also referred to as the saturation level. If a certain critical saturation level is...

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Issue 2013-02

Influence of various de-icing agents on the durability of concrete products

According to information published by the Bundesverband Straße, Landschaft, Garten e.V. (SLG; Federal Association for Road Construction, Landscaping and Gardening), the 2009-10 and 2010-11 winter...

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